In post No. 513 at this blog, part 4 of this Tirumala kshEtra studies, I suggested that the Lord Venkateswara's idol at Tirumala may be that of Jain tIrthankara nEmInatha. In Part 5 and Part 6, we have dealt with some more issues dealing with Early Indians (also early Jains as distinct from Modern Jains). We shall, now, try to study the possibility of Goddess Padmavathi being a Jain Goddess. इस ब्लाग के पोस्ट नं. ५१३ , हमारे तिरुमल क्षेत्राध्ययन और परिशीलन भाग ४ मॆं मै यह प्रतिपादन किया कि (वह अंतिम नहीं है, वह केवल प्रारंभिक है, और आगे बहुत परिशोथन और चर्चा करने का है) कि, तिरुमला मॆं भगवान वॆंकटेश्वर के मूर्ती जैन तीर्थंकर नेमीनाथ का हे सकता है। उस प्रतिपादन का आधार था ऐतिहासिक धृवीकृत अंस बुक्कराय संधी जिसके द्वारा विजयनगर प्रभु बुक्कराय ने जैनों और वैष्णव धर्मचारियों मध्य एक राजी किया था। श्रावण बॆळगॊळ जैन क्षेत्र के रक्षण को प्रति में जैनों को तिरुमल मंदिर को वैष्णव देवालय रहने के लिये अंगीकर देना पडा था। మనం ఈ బ్లాగులో, పోస్టు నం. ౫౧౩, ఈ తిరుమల తిరుపతి క్షేత్ర ఇతిహాస అధ్యయనం భాగం ౪ లో నేను ప్రతిపాదించినది ఏమిటంటే, తిరుమల లో ని శ్రీవేంకటేశ్వర భగవానుడి విగ్రహం జైన తీర్ధంకరుడైన నేమీనాధుడిది అయి ఉండ వచ్చని. దానికి ఆధారంగా దాదాపుగా ఋజువు అయిన విజయనగర చక్రవర్తి బుక్కరాయలు కుదిర్చిన బుక్కరాయ సంధిని తీసుకున్నాము. ఈ సంధిలో భాగంగా జైనులు తిరుమల పై తమ హక్కును వైష్ణవులకు అనుకూలంగా వదులుకుంటే, వారికి బుక్కరాయలు శ్రావణ బెళగొళ జైన మందిరానికి రక్షణ కలిగించేలా ఏర్పాటయింది. తురవాత ౫ వ భాగంలో ౬ వి భాగంలో ఇంకా మరికొన్ని అంశాలను పరిశీలించాము. కొనసాగింపు.
IMPORTANT CLARIFICATION मुख्य स्पष्टीकरण ముఖ్య స్పష్టీకరణ
Guardian Goddesses (SAsana dEvatAs) in Jainism are not to be regarded as conserts (wives) of tIrthankarAs. tIrthankarAs were celibate monks. They were never married. The Guardian Goddesses, according to legend, were appointed by Indra to protect the tIrthankaras. Guardian Goddesses are also called YakshiNis, a sort of inferior-demi-Goddesses. They are regarded as inferior to tIrthankaras. In Hinduism also yakshas and yakshiNis are regarded only as demy-Gods.
On the other hand the three Shaktis (Three Chief Goddesses i.e. Saraswati, Lakshmi, Parvati, wives of Creator Brahma, Protector VishNu, Destroyer Shiva respectively, and mother Goddess AdI Shakti (First-foremost Supreme Power- mother of the three Gods Brahama, VishNu, and Maheshwar) are worshipped and ranked pari passu (equal in rank) with three Main Gods(Goddesses).
The 18 Shakti Pithas (18 Seats of Mother Goddess dEvi or Adi Shakti), 51 Shakti Pithas (51 seats), 9 Goddesses Durga (nava durga) all these are just different names for the same Mother Goddess dEvi or Adi Shakti, including Saraswati, Lakshmi and Parvati.
Names of the Jain Goddesses though called yakshis, treated as inferior to tIrthankaras, though believed to have births and deaths like humans, have many similarities to the Aryan Goddesses. In Indian Culture which includes the sub cultures Jain, Hindu sub-Cultures, these Goddesses (Yakshinis or Principal Goddesses whatever nomenclature is used) are worshipped with great reverance as DESIRE FULFILLERS.
Here, it will not be out of context for me to point out that in Latvia-Lithuania-Old-Prussia,Scandinavia, Baltics ancient civilisations from which Aryans migrated into India, there are 14 mAtE (14 Mothers), and some Festivals take place even today in those countries, though Christianity tries to insult them as pagan Gods/Goddesses/cultures. VishNu also was a Indo-European-Scandinavian God (insulted as pagan by Christianity). So thus, while VishNu + parjanya (indra-varuna) + some other Gods + 14 Mate of Latvia-Lithuania-Old Prussian Aryan Culture, after their migration into India, expanded in India into larger number of Gods and Goddesses.
In Jain sub-culture, the idols of Guardian Goddesses protecting the main God (tirthankara) will be smaller in size. There seems to be a tradition of protective Goddesses having a serpant hood.
AMBIKA (kUshmAnDa Devi)- idol of the deity is to be traced in Tirumala (Upper Hill) itself
The Protective Goddess of nEmInatha is ambikA (also called amba, kUshmAnDA dEvi). Her idol should normally be available somewhere near the nEminAtha (Venkateswara) temple, but it is not a taboo that, the protective Goddess's temple can be at a distance. If Archeological Survey of India takes up some indepth excavations on a larger scale at Tirumala, the idol of ambika (amba or kUshmAnDa dEvi) may be traced there itself (provided it has not been removed by vaishNava priests treating it as diminutive yakshIni).
Goddess ambika's vehicle (vAhanam or mount) is lion (simham). We can see these lions on the temple dome of Lord Venkateswara. Friday Worship in the Temple, use of turmeric and vermillon for worship, etc. also support the idea of ambika worship. There is also a custom called 'kUshmAnDa dAnam' (giving away a pumpkin). People thinking that kUshmAnDa dEvi is inferior to Goddess Lakshmi might have led to a custom of hanging a pumpkin at the entrance of houses, during house warming ceremony, probably as a protector demy-Goddess, while she ought to have been regarded as a higher level Goddess.
Goddess Padmavathi is now regarded as a consert of Lord Venkateswara at Tirumala. There is also the story of AkAsharAju as his father-in-law and Vakula as his mother. Explanatory story for her staying away from Lord Venkateswara is her resentment, when Goddess Padmavathi saw Lord Venkateswara with Principal Goddess Lakshmi who came down from the highest heaven VaikunTham of Lord VishNu to meet her husband. Then some Narada or Creator Brahma has to intervene to convince and pacify both Lakshmi and Padmavathi that they were only allotropes of the same principal Goddess Mahalakshmi. (Those who do not know this story may see the Telugu Movie Venkateswara Mahatmyam, in which Late N.T.Rama Rao acted as Lord Venkateswara, Actress Late Savitri played the role of Padmavathi, Actress S. Varalakshmi played the role of Principal Goddess Mahalakshmi (also called Sri Lakshmi).
For those who wish to know the details of this film, here is a Wikipedia link: Click to go to wikipedia
Click to go to youtube videos of the movie.
Most conspicuous difference between the idols of the Jain deity Padmavathi and the VaishNava deity Padmavathi is : Jain deity has a serpant-hood over head. Vaishnavaite deity does not have. Sitting on lotus in a lake is common for both. pASa (Noose) as a weapon is common for both.
If Padmavati is to be related to Sri Venkateswara, we have to identify Venkateswara's idol as that of Parsvanatha, and not nEminatha. As Padmavathi is guardian of tirthankara Parsvanatha, the temple of Parsvanatha should also be nearby in Tirupati. Goddess Padmavati has another name Alarmelu mangA (Padmavati = one who is seated on a Lotus. Alar = Lotus in Tamil. mElu = seat in Tamil. manga, mangala = auspicious.). Her abode Tiruchanur is also called Mangapuram, Alarmelu MangApuram, Tirupati Local. There is a temple called Srinivasa Mangapuram, near Tiruati, where KalyANa venkaTEswara is the deity. This Srinivasa (another name for Venkateswara) can be Parsvanatha.
It appears that most Jain tirthankaras and Guardian goddesses (padmAvati, ambika in case of Tirumala) seem to have attached water tanks (pushkariNis). If Archeological Survey of India makes detailed excavations at Tiruchanoor, and Srinivsa mangApuram, probably ruins of some Jain Temples may be found which can probably help in identifying pArsvanAtha, nEminAtha, ambika(kUshmAnDa dEvi), and the original idol of padmAvathi with snake canopy.
To continue. सशेष. సశేషం.