Photo courtesy Chinanews.com.cn.
Click to go to see this news:- BAGHDAD, Iraq - Militants struck back Sunday in their first major blow against a US-led security clampdown in Baghdad with car bombings that killed at least 63 people, left scores injured and sent a grim message to officials boasting that extremist factions were on the run.
The Poetic glory of Telugu Poet Tikkana. तॆलुगु महाकवि तिक्कना के कविता वैभव. తిక్కన కవితా వైభవం.
Proof of great skills of description of battle scenes even in the 13th Century CE.
World language English in Roman script: प्रपंच भाषा अंग्रेजी, रोमन स्क्रिप्ट में। ప్రపంచ భాష ఇంగ్లీషు రోమన్ స్క్రిప్టులో.
Telugu is a language spoken by more than 80 million people, spread over the world. The ancient literature of the Telugu language is richer than the literature of the English language, both in terms of quantity and quality, to the best of my limited knowledge.
Like many other Indian languages, Telugu's vocabulary consists native Indian words (called dEsi), as well as the imported Aryan Sanskrit words (called tatsamam, or prakritis). dEsi words and phrases are easy to pronounce. Tatsama (imported from Sanskrit) words and phrases are difficult to pronounce, but they have their own peculiar beauty.
As a sample, we shall take up Telugu vocabulary, and semantics, along with the figures of speech, pertaining to the Telugu word 'pulinamu'. Pulinam is word imported from Sanskrit 'pulinaha', by adding the suffix 'mu'. Pulinaha or pulinamu means, a sand dune. These sand dunes are quite common in Indian rivers, particularly during summer months, when the rivers dry up due to intense heat.
సీ. తఱుచుగాఁ దెగిపడ్డధవళచామరములు
డిండీరములయొప్పుఁ బుండరీక ములు
మీనభంగియుఁ దలలు శిలల చాడ్ఫును
దేశముల్ శైవాలరేఖయు మాంసంబు పంకసమానతయును
దాల్ప భటాశ్వమాతంగాంగభగ్నరథముల తిట్టలు పులినములు గాఁగఁ
తే. ధీరవరకోటి ద్రెళ్ళినవీరతతికి
సంభ్రమము పుట్ట సంభృతోత్సాహలీల
నుబ్బి భూతబేతాళంబు లోలలాడ
నిట్టలం బగు నెత్తురుటేరు వఱసె.
Source: verse No. 147 from: Andhra Mahabharatam Tikkana Bharatam Drona Parvam prathamasvasam ఆంధ్ర మహాభారతం, తిక్కన భారతం, ద్రోణ పర్వం, ప్రథమాశ్వాసం 147.
In Latin script.
The prosody used is called 'sIsamu' and 'tETa giti'. sIsam verses have four lines. Invariably, it has an attachment of another four line verse called 'tETa giti' (light verse- meaning not heavy stuff).
taracugA tegipaDDa dhavaLa cAmaramulu,
DinDIramula yoppu, punDarIka-
mulu marALambula polupunu, karavAla-
mulu mIna bhangiyu, talalu Silala
cADpunu, dESamul SaivAla rEkhayu,
mAmsambu panka samAnatayunu
tAlpa bhaTASva mAtanga anga bhagna rathamula tiTTalu pulinamulu kAga
dhIravara kOTi treLLina vIra taTiki
sambhramamu puTTa sambhritOtsAha lIla
ubbi bhUta bhEtALambul OlalADa
niTTalamb agu netturu TEru varase.
Context: The Sanskrit scripture VyAsa MahAbharata is well-known. This scripture was translated into Telugu language, by three Great poets by name Nannaya, tikkana, and yerrApraggaDa. This particular verse is from Volume 7, called 'drONa parvam'. drONa was the famous Guru of archery for both the PanDava and Kaurava Princes. drONa parva (volume 7) deals with that part of the Mahabharata war, in which drONAcArya was the Chief Commander of the Kaurava Forces. After nine days of fierce battle, Bhishma, the grandsire of the Pandavas and Kauravas, fell to an arrow from SikhanDi & Arjuna.
At the request of Prince duryOdhana, in the place of Bhishma, drONa became the Supreme Commander of the Kaurava forces, and continued the battle for another five days. This particular verse describes the scene of the battle ground, after a days war.
The battle ground is being compared to a River of Blood. Like the regular Rivers of water, the River of Blood too has all the components and constituents, such as waves, froth, fishes, stones, etc.
The translator poet, tikkana, of the 13th Century (1200 -1280 CE), in those days, writing with on dried palmyra leaves with an iron stylus (called ghanTam), when there was no electricity, working on oil lamps, when there were no computers or laptops wrote thousands of verses.
Here is an English gist of one of such verses quoted above, which depicts the RIVER OF BLOOD on the battle ground.
COMPARISON OF WHITE FLY BRUSHES (used as fans) to FROTH, LOTUSES, SWANS.
dhavaLa chAmarAlu are the white fans (fly brushes) made of the hair of animals known as 'chAmarAs- a type of yaks, bos-grunniers', used for weaving the battle-tired princes. These brushes are also called 'vinjAmarAlu వింజామరాలు'. DinDIrams are bubbles and drops of froth on the river's waves. punDarIkams are white and red lotuses. The poet is comparing the white fly brushes, to the white/red lotuses with froth appearing on their top. Rivers whether of water, or blood have waves with froth on them. Hence, this simile/metaphor is quite justifiable. He is also comparing them to swans (marALams) in the river.
COMPARISON OF SWORDS OF DECEASED SOLDIERS TO FISHES
karavAlams are swords used in the battle. These the poet is comparing to fishes (mInamula bhangi).
COMPARISON OF SEVERED HEADS TO STONES IN RIVER
In 'talalu Silala cADpu' talalu =heads, Silalu = round stones, cADpu = like. The poet is comparing the severed heads of the soldiers to the stones which we see in rivers (whether rivers of blood, or rivers of water).
COMPARISON OF 'dESamulu' to a row of water weeds in rivers.
dESamulu SaivAla rEkhayu. The meaning of the word dESamulu is not found in dictionaries. We have to search. In the word dESAkshi rAga, a name of a musical tune, akshi means = a girl having eyes, dESamu might have meant either fish or a lotus petal, both of which are used in similes employed by poets. Anyway, the poet has compared the dESamulu to water weeds. After further investigation, I shall re-write this paragraph.
COMPARISON OF FLESH TO MUD.
mAmsambu panka samAnata. mAmsambu = flesh. panka = mud, grime. samAnata = equality, similarity. Here, the similarity of flesh of the wounded bodies of the corpses, and the mud and grime which is found in rivers, is very clear.
COMPARISON OF DEAD SOLDIERS, HORSES, ELEPHANTS, BROKEN CHARIOTS TO SAND DUNES.
bhaTASva mAtanga anga bhagna rathamula tiTTalu pulinamulu kAga. bhaTAs = soldiers. aSva = horses. mAtanga = elephants. bhagna = broken. rathamula = chariots. kAga = having become. pulinamulu = sand dunes. All these heaps and mounds of the dead soldiers, horses, elephants, broken chariots, the poet is comparing to sand dunes (pulinams).
In the smaller verse of the four lines, the comparison is between the swollen groups of souls of slain warriors, and the swollen river. Exact meaning is not clear. The swollen river of blood, presumably may also serve as water to quench the thirst of dead souls, (pending their judgement day, they seem to be called prEtams or bhEtALas, surviving on blood).
Now, compare this scene of river of blood on the battle grounds of Mahabharata, called kurukshEtram, to the heaps of dead bodies, exploded buildings and cars in Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakisthan, Syria, Turkey under guidance from ISIS, Taliban etc.
There are five more verses to be discussed under pulinams (sand dunes). We have seen one set of sand dunes consisting of heaps broken chariots, horses, elephants, soldiers. The remaining four pulinams (sand dunes), will be taken up in the forthcoming blog posts.
(To continue सशेष ఇంకా ఉంది.).